It was occupied by a Russian force in the early part of 1723; and Tahmasp III., the tenth Safawid shah (1722-1731), then without a throne and his country occupied by the Afghans, ceded it, together with Mazandaran and Astarabad, to Peter the Great by a treaty of the 12th of September of the same year.
MAZANDARAN, a province of northern Persia, lying between the Caspian Sea and the Elburz range, and bounded E.
Mazandaran comprises two distinct natural regions presenting the sharpest contrasts in their relief, climate and products.
A partition treaty had been signed between these two powers in 1723, by which the czar was to take Astarabad, Mazandaran, Gilan, part of Shirvan and Daghistan, while the acquisitions of the Porte were to be traced out by a line drawn from the junction of the Aras and Kur rivers, and passing along by Ardebil, Tabriz and Hamadan, and thence to Kerm~nshah.
On the murder of the tyrant he had raised the standard of independence, successfully resisted Al~mad Shah and his Afghans, who sought to check his progress in the interests of Shah Rukh, and eventually brought under his own sway the valuable provinces of Gilan, Mazandaran and Astarabad 4quite a little kingdom in itself.