At the same time an Austrian army was marching through the Legations, and Neapolitan and Spanish troops were advancing from the south.
In the Austrian provinces and in the duchies it carried all before it, and gained many adherents in the Legations, Rome and Naples, although in the latter regions the autonomist feeling was still strong even among the Liberals.
On the 11th the two emperors met at Villafranca, where they agreed that Lombardy should be ceded to Piedmont, and Venetia retained by Austria but governed by Liberal methods; that the rulers of Tuscany, Parma and Modena, who had been again deposed, should be restored, the Papal States reformed, the Legations given a separate administration and the pope made president of an Italian confederation including Austria as mistress of Venetia.
At the same time the Austrians evacuated the Legations and Cardinal Milesi, the papal representative, departed.
Peking suffered severely during the Boxer movement and the siege of the legations in the summer of 1900.