In Physma, Arnoldia, Phylliscum and other genera the gonidia are killed sooner or later by special hyphal branches, haustoria, which pierce the membrane of the algal cell, penetrate the protoplasm and absorb the contents (fig.
Special short hyphal branches which are in close contact with the membrane of the algal cell (fig.
They arise usually in the gonidial layer of the thallus by division of the gonidia and the development around them of the hyphal investment; their increase in number leads to the rupture of the enclosing cortical layer and the soredia escape from the thallus as a powdery mass (fig.
Xylographa, e, f, Two soredia in the act of germinating; the Graphis, &c.) or hyphal envelope has grown out below into G none (e.g.
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