The patricians (hence called leliaerts) relied upon the support of the French crown, but the fatal battle of Courtrai (1302), in which the handicraftsmen (clauwaerts) laid low the chivalry of France, secured the triumph of the democracy.
The comune included the entire citybishop, consuls, oligarchy, councils, handicraftsmen, proletariate.
Each city which had been the cradle of freedom thankfully accepted a master, to qutmch the conflagration of party strife, encouragt trade, and make the handicraftsmen comfortable.
From the governments of Vyatka and Vladimir large numbers of bricklayers, carpenters and Other handicraftsmen migrate temporarily to the S.
The exclusion of the handicraftsmen from the Rath led, early in the 15th century, to a rising of the craft gilds against the patrician merchants, and in 1410 they forced the latter to recognize the authority of a committee of 48 burghers, which concluded with the senate the so-called First Recess; there were, however, fresh outbursts in 1458 and 1483, which were settled by further compromises.
How would you define handicraftsmen? Add your definition here.