3 The twin ranges of the Astin-tagh are fairly equivalent in point of magnitude and regularity; but while the Lower Range, on the north, sensibly decreases in altitude towards the east,the Upper Range, on the south, maintains its general altitude in a remarkable way, and is gapped by steep, wild, deeply incised transverse glens directed towards the north, and generally fenced in by dark precipitous walls of rock.
The edges of the plateaus are gapped by deep valleys; the hilly tract between the Dvina and its tributary the Livonian Aa has received, from its picturesque narrow valleys, thick forests and numerous lakes, the name of "Livonian Switzerland."
Presents more the aspects of elevated plains gapped with ravine-like river-courses, while in the S.E., towards the Manych depression, it passes over into the arid Aral-Caspian steppes (e.g.
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