Sentence Examples


  • Another form of isomerism is occasioned by spatial arrangements, many of the reduced terephthalic acids existing in two stereo-isomeric forms. Baeyer explains this by analogy with fumaric and maleic acids: he assumes the reduced benzene ring to lie in a plane; when both carboxyl groups are on the same side of this plane, the acids, in general, resemble maleic acids, these forms he denotes by rcis-cis, or shortly cis-; when the carboxyl groups are on opposite sides, the acids correspond to fumaric acid, these forms are denoted by rcis-trans, or shortly trans-.
  • It may be obtained by distilling benzyl sulphide !or disulphide, by the action of sodium on benzaldehyde or benzal chloride, by distilling fumaric and cinnamic phenyl esters: C6H50.OC CH:CH CO.OC6H5 - >C02+C6H5.CH:CH CO.006H5 - >2C02 -{-C 6 H 5 CH: CH C 6 H 5 (Ber., 18, p.1945), and fromchlorasymmetrical diphenylethane derivatives which undergo a rearrangement when heated (Ber., 7.
  • Many derivatives are known, some of which exist in two structural forms, exhibiting geometrical isomerism after the mode of fumaric and maleic acids.
  • It may be prepared by heating racemic acid (see TARTARIC Acid) with fuming hydriodic acid; by heating fumaric acid (q.v.) with water at 150-200° C.; by the action of nitrous acid on inactive aspartic acid; and by the action of moist silver oxide on monobromsuccinic acid.
  • It forms deliquescent crystals, which are readily soluble in alcohol and melt at ioo° C. When heated for some time at 130° C. it yields fumaric acid (q.v.), and on rapid heating at 180° C. gives maleic anhydride and fumaric acid.

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