Robertson Smith, on the other hand, a new era was reached, in which the recently recognized existence of Totemism was made the basis of an attempt to give a 1 Scipione de Ricci, bishop of Pistoia from 1780 to 1791, on the ex-Jesuits requesting him to consecrate a bell dedicated to this object, issued a pastoral letter (3rd June 1784) in which he pointed out that the spirit of true religion was "far removed from fetichism," and warned his flock against "cardiolatry."
In these worships, social organization, religious dramas and paraphernalia, amusement and gambling, and private religion or fetichism, found place.
C. Haddon's Fetichism and Magic. in which the god really lived, and which were no mere images or symbols of him.
C. Haddon, Fetichism and Magic, containing a good bibliography (London, 1906).
From all the lower levels where superstition and cruelty reign, from the depths of fear inspired by fetichism, we look on to the higher level of Judaism as the progressive religion of the old world.