The objection that a copper plate shows signs of wear after a thousand impressions have been taken has been removed, since duplicate plates are readily produced by electrotyping, while transfers of copper engravings, on stone, zinc or aluminium, make it possible to turn out large editions in a printing-machine, which thus supersedes the slow-working hand-press.
Originally the maps were engraved on copper, and the progress of publication was slow; but since the introduction of modern processes, such as electrotyping (in 1840), photography (in 1855) and zincography (in 1859), it has been rapid.
Wahl, Practical Guide to the Gold and Silver Electroplater, &c. (Philadelphia, 1883); Wilson, Stereotyping and Electrotyping (London); Lunge, Sulphuric Acid and Alkali, vol.
ELECTROTYPING, an application of the art of electroplating to typography.
Silver electrotyping is occasionally resorted to for special purposes.
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