Now the electric force (P,Q,R) is the force acting on the electrons of the medium moving with velocity v; consequently by Faraday's electrodynamic law (P,Q,R) = (P',Q' - vc, R'+vb) where (P',Q',R') is the force that would act on electrons at rest, and (a,b,c) is the magnetic induction.
If v varies with respect to locality, or if there is a velocity of convection (p,q,r) variable with respect to direction and position, and analytical expression of the relation (ii) assumes a more complex form; we thus derive the most general equations of electrodynamic propagation for matter treated as continuous, anyhow distributed and moving in any manner.
These results constitute a far-reaching development of the modern or electrodynamic theory of the aether, of which the issue can hardly yet be foreseen.
Electromagnetic voltmeters may therefore be thermal, electromagnetic or electrodynamic. As a rule, electromagnetic voltmeters are only suitable for the measurement of relatively small potentials - o to 200 or 300 volts.