The plague of 1665, carried hither from London, almost depopulated this village, and the name of the rector, William Mompesson, attracted wide notice on account of his brave attempts to combat the outbreak.
In the 18th century it is said to have contained 20,000 inhabitants, but it was almost depopulated by plague in 1814.
It changed hands more than once in the wars between Pisa and Genoa in the 12th and 13th centuries; from 1390 it belonged to the prince of Piombino, but was depopulated in 1553 by the Turkish fleet, and only resettled at the beginning of the 19th century.
Pure-blooded Indians are not numerous, as whole districts were depopulated and whole tribes exterminated by the Spanish colonists and the buccaneers.
In Italy there was a great mortality in 543, but the most notable epidemic was in 565, which so depopulated the country as to leave it an easy prey to the Lombards.