Some psychologists prefer to restrict the term to the narrower use which excludes all mental states in which particulars are cognized, even though the universal be present also.
In connexion with this Biran treats most of the obscure problems which arise in dealing with conscious experience, such as the mode by which the organism is cognized, the mode by which the organism is distinguished from extra-organic things, and the nature of those general ideas by which the relations of things are known to us - cause, power, force, &c.
He views extensive quantity as being cognized differently from number.
It may, however, be pointed out that in so far as an object is cognized by the mind, it becomes in a sense part of the complex self-content.
Our existence depends on the fact that we are cognized by God (cogitor ergo cogito All self-consciousness is at the same time God-consciousness; our knowledge is never mere scientia, it is invariably con-scientia - a knowing with, consciousness of, or participation in God.