The ciphers are different, but on the same principle: the characters in each are either single digits or combinations of two or three digits, standing some of them for letters, others for syllables or words, - the number of distinct characters which had to be deciphered being thus very considerable.
The documents underlying the Pentateuch and book of Joshua, represented by the ciphers J, E, D and P, are assumed to have been drawn up in the chronological order in which those ciphers are here set down, and the period of their composition extends from the 9th century B.C., in which the earlier portions of J were written, to the 5th century B.C., in which P finally took shape.
At the end of August 1793, the republicans had three armies in the Vendee - the army of Rochelle, the army of Brest and the Mayengais; but their generals were either ciphers, like C. P. H.
In tables of logarithms of numbers to base io the mantissa only is in general tabulated, as the characteristic of the logarithm of a number can always be written down at sight, the rule being that, if the number is greater than unity, the characteristic is less by unity than the number of digits in the integral portion of it, and that if the number is less than unity the characteristic is negative, and is greater by unity than the number of ciphers between the decimal point and the first significant figure.
For numbers beginning with i followed by fifteen ciphers, and then by seventeen or a less number of significant figures) the logarithms were proportional to these significant figures.