A new Congress, having resolved itself into a constituent assembly, followed up this Centralist policy (Dec. 30, 1836) by framing a new constitution, the Siete Leyes or Seven Laws, which converted the states into departments, ruled by governors appointed by the central authority, and considerably reduced popular representation.
The Centralist government, after a vain attempt to defeat him by professing a more thorough Federalism, gave way to force, and Bustamante was allowed to leave the country.
The provisional president, General Carrera, proving too Centralist, was replaced by Alvarez (Sept.
But the new Congress was too Federalist for Santa Anna, and he retired, leaving the reins to Nicolas Bravo, under whom a new Centralist constitution was established (1843).
Spired by an able Conservative leader, Lucas Alaman, proved strongly Centralist: one is especially noteworthy, the establishment of the ministry of " fomento," or encouragement to public works, education, and intellectual and economic development, which is a conspicuous aid to Mexican welfare to-day.