Ivan was also unfortunate in having for his chief antagonist Stephen Bathory, one of the greatest captains of the age.
The most celebrated captains of these wars were present on either side - under Gaston de Foix were Bayard, Yves d'Allegre, La Palisse; and under Cardona the Spanish viceroy of Naples, Pedro Navarro the great engineer, and Pescara the originator of the Spanish tactical system.
The captains placed themselves in the front, and in the centre 38 out of 40 of them were struck down.
Most notable of all perhaps was the shepherd Athronges, who assumed the pomp of royalty and employed his four brothers as captains and satraps in the war which he waged upon Romans and king's men alike - not even Jews escaped him unless they brought him contributions.
The mission of Sir Francis Younghusband to Lhasa in 1904 resulted in an extension of the Indian system of triangulation which finally determined the geographical position of that city, and in a most valuable reconnaissance of the valleys of the Upper Brahmaputra and Indus by Captains C. H.