On his return to the Peninsula, the Federal Republican government in 1873 confided to General Campos several high commands, in which he again distinguished himself against the Cantonal Republicans and the Carlists.
On the advice of Cassander they made effective their ancient cantonal league, apparently after the pattern of Aetolia.
They were divided into four cantons (pagi), common affairs being managed by the cantonal assemblies.
The whole burden fell on Winterthur, which struggled valiantly to meet its liabilities, and was helped by large loans from the cantonal and federal governments.
Such a statesman was sure to clash with the doctrinaires, like Salmeron, who wanted to imitate French methods; with Pi y Margall, who wanted a federal republic after purely Spanish ideas of decentralization; and above all with the intransigent and gloomy fanatics who became the leaders of the cantonal insurrections at Cadiz, Seville, Valencia, Malaga and Cartagena in 1873.