In March 1865 he was breveted major-general U.S.A. "for gallant and meritorious service in the battle of Ezra Church and during the campaign against Atlanta," and in 1893 received a Congressional medal of honour for bravery at Fair Oaks.
He entered the Lutheran ministry, had charge of churches at New Germantown and Bedminster, New Jersey, and after 1772 of a church in Woodstock, Virginia, and there in 1775 raised the 8th Virginia (German) regiment, of which he was made colonel; in February 1 77 7 he became a brigadier-general in the Continental Army; and in September 1783 was breveted major-general.
Breveted major-general in 1865, he remained in the army for a year as commander of the military district of Charleston, South Carolina.
For this he was breveted major, and in May 1814 received a regular major's commission, but being reduced at the conclusion of the war to the rank of captain, temporarily left the service.
On the 25th of December 1837, after a difficult campaign, he inflicted a severe defeat upon the Indians at the battle of Okeechobee, and for this was breveted brigadier-general.