The Scots were surprised in their bivouacs, but quickly formed up, and at first repulsed both the horse and the foot.
In the field, armies lived as a rule in camp (q.v.), and when the provision of canvas shelter was impossible in bivouac. At the present time, however, it is unusual, in Europe at any rate, for troops on active service to hamper themselves with the enormous trains of tent wagons that would be required, and cantonments or bivouacs, or a combination of the two have therefore taken the place, in modern warfare, of the old long rectilinear lines of tents that marked the restingplace and generally, too, the order of battle of an 18th-century army.
The wet state of the ground (largely composed of corn-fields) and the scattered bivouacs of the French army prevented the attack from being made at 6 A.M.
Pushing on through the night, they drove the French out of seven successive bivouacs and at length drove them over the Sambre.
And X., which had been so heavily engaged on the 16th, still in their bivouacs preparing to move.