From Bagdad downward, the course of the Tigris is peculiarly serpentine and shifting.
And the very large and important Diyala, a little below Bagdad, at 33° 15' N.
At Bagdad it has an average breadth of about 200 yards and a current in flood time of about 44 m.
Two lines of steamers, an English and a Turkish, furnish an inadequate service between Basra and Bagdad, but there is no steam navigation on the river above the latter city.
Railway concessions were given to Germans over the heads of British applicants already in possession of lines from which they were expro- Activity priated, thus affording the nucleus of the Bagdad Turkey.