The golden plate inscribed " holy to Yahweh " placed over the head (the details are discrepant) had a mystic atoning force (Ex.
In 1847 he was made tutor of his college, and in 1853 he delivered the Bampton lectures, his subject being "The Atoning Work of Christ viewed in Relation to some Ancient Theories."
During the course of the 19th century in Scottish Presbyterianism the affirmation of Christ's atoning death for all men, the denial of eternal punishment, the modification of the doctrine of the inspiration of the Scriptures by acceptance of the results of the Higher Criticism, were all censured as perilous errors.
Even the Hebrew historian ascribes to this act the effect of rousing divine indignation against the invading host of Israel; it would not, therefore, be surprising if under the miseries brought on Palestine by the westward march of the Assyrian power, the idea of the sacrifice of one's own son, as the most powerful of atoning rites, should have taken hold of those kings of Judah (Ahaz and Manasseh, 2 Kings xvi.
The atoning ritual reached its climax on the Day of Atonement e"??? ?i, aj p. pa E eX a6µou, in the Mishna simply " the Day " Yoma), observed annually on the 10th day of the 7th month (Tisri), in the autumn, about October, shortly before the Feast of Tabernacles or vintage festival.