Died, and was succeeded by his elder son, Ahmed I., a boy of fourteen.
Among the mutinous soldiers on that occasion was a fellah officer calling himself Ahmed Arabi the Egyptian.
On the 1st of February 1881 a more serious disturbance arose at Cairo from the attempt to try three colonels, Ahmed Arabi, All Fehmy, and Abd-el-Al, who had been arrested as the ringleaders of the military party.
A leader appeared in the person of Mahommed Ahmed, born in 1848, who had taken up his abode on Abba Island, and, acquiring great reputation for sanctity, had actively fomented insurrection.
A certain Ahmed Pasha, who was about to proceed to a province in Arabia, of which he had been appointed governor, was raised to the important post of pasha of Egypt, through the influence of the Turks and the favor of the sheiks; but Mehemet Ali, who with his Albanians held the citadel, refused to assent to their choice; the Mamelukes moved over from El-Giza, whither they had been invited by Thir Pasha, and Ahmed Paslia betook himself to the mosque of al-Zflhir, which the French had converted into a fortress.