On the other hand, Haakon IV., king of Norway, at once to restrain the independence of his jarls and to keep in check the ambition of the Scottish kings, set sail in 1263 on a great expedition, which, however, ended disastrously at Largs.
They remained under the rule of Norse earls until 1231, when the line of the jarls became extinct.
In 874 they harried Mercia so cruelly that King Burgred fled in despair to Rome; the victors divided up his realm, taking the eastern half for themselves, and establishing in it a confederacy, whose jarls occupied the five boroughs of Stamford, Lincoln, Derby, Nottingham and Leicester.
Of the rest of the invaders one section established I petty kingdom in Yorkshire, but those in the Midlands were fubject to no common sovereign but lived in a loose confederacy inder the jarls of the Five Boroughs already named above.
Everywhere there was an English lower class which welcomed the advent of the conquering kings of Wessex and the fall of the Danish jarls.