The latter immediately proclaimed the constitution, but the new king, Charles Felix, who was at Modena at the time, repudiated the regents acts and exiled him to Tuscany; and, with his consent, an Austrian army invaded Piedmont and crushed the constitutionalists at Novara.
The struggle which the constitutionalists and royalists of Marseilles made against the central government furnished Bonaparte with an occasion for writing his first important political pamphlet, entitled "Le Souper de Beaucaire."
Finally an agreement was arrived at between the aristocratic constitutionalists and the popular party, as a result of which the grand-duke's participation in the war was formally demanded.
In Bloemfontein the Constitutionalists had a strong following; elsewhere their supporters were numerically weak.
They resulted in the return of 29 members of the Oranjie Unie, 5 Constitutionalists and 4 Independents.