These minor ranges, excepting the Zenta, are separated from the Andean masses by comparatively low depressions and are usually described as distinct ranges; topographically, however, they seem to form a continuation of the ranges running southward from the Santa Victoria and forming the eastern rampart of the great central plateau of which the Puna de Atacama covers a large part.
The whole of the Andamans and the outlying islands were completely surveyed topographically by the Indian Survey Department under Colonel Hobday in 1883-1886, and the surrounding seas were charted by Commander Carpenter in 1888-1889.
The pericycle, medullary rays, endocycle and mesoderm all form parts of one tissue system, the external conjunctive, and are only topographically separable.
In dextral Gastropods the only structure found on the topographically right side of the rectum is the genital duct.
The gonaduct, therefore, is derived from the topographically right kidney.