The city is regularly laid out on a hilly site, on both sides of the Purgatory (or Las Animas) river, near a picturesque canyon and mountain district, including the Stonewall Valley, and at the foot of the Raton Mountains, of which the highest peak, Fisher's (or Raton) Peak (9586 ft.), is 10 m.
The east group includes the fields of Canyon City (whose product is the ideal domestic coal of the western states), Raton and the South Platte; the Park group includes the Cones field and the Middle Park; the west group includes the Yampa, La Plata and Grand River fields - the last prospectively (not yet actually) the most valuable of all as to area and quality.
Thus, at Santa Fe, in the north central part of the state, the elevation is 7013 ft.; at Raton, in the N.E., 6400 ft.; at Las Cruces, in the extreme S., 3570 ft.; and at Red Bluff, in the extreme S.E., 2876 ft.
The chief centres of production are the Raton field, in Colfax county; the Durango-Gallup field, in McKinley and Rio Arriba counties; the Whiteoaks field, in Lincoln county; and the Los Cerillos and Tejon areas, in Santa Fe county.
The main line of the former enters New Mexico near Raton, extends S.W.