Far from being destroyed by the competition of the " modern " factories, domestic industries have well maintained their ground, new branches of petty trade having sprung up in some districts, among them the manufacture of agricultural machinery (thrashing machines in Ryazan, Vyatka and Perm; ploughs in Smolensk, &c.) deserves notice.
The autumnal subsidence of the river was followed by shallow ploughing performed by oxen yoked to clumsy wooden ploughs, the clods being afterwards levelled with wooden hoes by hand.
Scare off the birds, harrow up the weeds, cut down all that shades the crop. Ploughs, waggons, threshing-sledges, harrows, baskets, hurdles, winnowing-fans are the farmer's implements.
Of wheel-ploughs he observes, that " they be good on even grounde that lyeth lyghte "; and on such lands they are still most commonly employed.
His description of the different kinds of ploughs is interesting; and he justly recommends such as were drawn by two horses (some even by one horse) in preference to the weighty and clumsy machines which required four or more horses or oxen.
How would you define ploughs? Add your definition here.