Scare off the birds, harrow up the weeds, cut down all that shades the crop. Ploughs, waggons, threshing-sledges, harrows, baskets, hurdles, winnowing-fans are the farmer's implements.
Descriptions of ploughs found in Hesiod's Works and Days and in Virgil's Georgics i.
Far from being destroyed by the competition of the " modern " factories, domestic industries have well maintained their ground, new branches of petty trade having sprung up in some districts, among them the manufacture of agricultural machinery (thrashing machines in Ryazan, Vyatka and Perm; ploughs in Smolensk, &c.) deserves notice.
Rents were paid in corn; and for the largest farm, which he thinks should employ no more than two ploughs, the rent was about six chalders of victual " when the ground is very good, and four in that which is not so good.
The only time the hoe is used is to thin out the cotton in the row; all the rest of the cultivation is by various forms of ploughs and so-called cultivators.