The more important of those in use to-day are carbolic acid, the perchloride and biniodide of mercury, iodoform, formalin, salicylic acid, &c. Carbolic acid is germicidal in strong solution, inhibitory in weaker ones.
The perchloride of mercury is another very powerful antiseptic used in solutions of strength I in 2000, I in 1000 and 1 in 500.
In the surgical treatment of haemorrhage minor means of arresting bleeding are: cold, which is most valuable in general oozing and local extravasations; very hot water, 130° to 160° F., a powerful haemostatic; position, such as elevation of the limb, valuable in bleeding from the extremities; styptics or astringents, applied locally, as perchloride of iron, tannic acid and others, the most valuable being suprarenal extract.
The perchloride, sulphate and pernitrate are strongly astringent; less extensively they are used in chronic discharges from the vagina, rectum and nose, while injected into the rectum they destroy worms.
Then, if available, freshly precipitated ferric hydrate must be given, which can be prepared by adding a solution of ammonia to one of iron perchloride.