The principal rivers of the province are the Si-kiang, the Pei-kiang, or North River, which rises in the mountains to the north of the province, and after a southerly course joins the Si-kiang at San-shui Hien; the Tung-kiang, or East River, which, after flowing in a south-westerly direction from its source in the north-east of the province, empties itself into the estuary which separates the city of Canton from the sea; and the Han River, which runs a north and south course across the eastern portion of the province, taking its rise in the mountains on the western frontier of Fu-kien and emptying itself into the China Sea in the neighbourhood of Swatow.
Jakob Wallenberg (1746-1778) described a voyage he took to the East Indies and China under the very odd title of Min son pei galejan (" My Son at the Galleys "), a work full of humour and originality.
That which is, is what it is in virtue of its perpetually changing relations (z-avra pei K ai 0666, Aiv).
Leaving the west gate of the city two roads lead to Lan-chow Fu, from which town begins the great high road into Central Asia by way of Lian-chow Fu, Kan-chow Fu and Su-chow to Hami, where it forks into two branches which follow respectively the northern and southern foot of the Tian-shan range, and are known as the Tian-shan pei lu and the Tian-shan nan lu.
In the north there are mountain groups with definite centres, the most notable being Paik-tu San or Pei-shan (8700 ft.) which contains the sources of the Yalu and Tumen.