Where the forest thins to the savanna and steppe, and communication is easier, are found the larger kingdoms and " empires " such as, in the north those established by the Songhai, Hausa, Fula, Bagirmi, Ba-Hima, &c., and in the south the states of Lunda, Kazembe, the Ba-Rotse, &c.
Turning to the Congo basin in the south, the great Luba and Lunda peoples are found stretching nearly across the continent, the latter, from at any rate the end of the 16th century until the close of the 19th century, more or less united under a single ruler, styled Muata Yanvo.
Extending from the Kwango affluent of the Kasai to Lake Tanganyika are the Luba-Lunda groups.
The next in importance, the Ba-Lunda, are mostly confined to the western half of this vast region.
They have given their name to the Lunda district of Angola.