This is especially the case in the lichens (symbiotic organisms composed of a fungal mycelium in association with algal cells), which are usually exposed to very severe fluctuations in external conditions.
This is particularly marked in certain lichens of shrubby habit.
Since about 1880 our knowledge of the species which can enter into such relationships has been materially extended, and the fungal constituents of the Lichens are known to include Basidiomycetes as well as Ascomycetes.
~any Algae, lichens, and mosses are included among lithophytes, ai id also Saxifraga Aizoon, S.
In the Florideae, Lichens and Laboulbenjaceae the, male cell is a non-motile spermatium, which is carried to the female organ.
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