The course of infection tends to be more serious in children who are immunocompromised, such as those undergoing chemotherapy or those who have a disease that disrupts normal immune response (e.g. human immunodeficiency syndrome [HIV]).
A substance known as varicella-zoster immune globulin (VZIG), which reduces the severity of chickenpox symptoms, is as of 2004 available to treat immunocompromised children and others at high risk of developing complications.
Men and women of all races are equally affected by T. gondii, however, except for immunocompromised individuals, the implications are more serious for women, as they can pass the infection on to their offspring.
Women who give birth to one infected child do not pass the infection to their fetus during subsequent pregnancies unless they are immunocompromised (for example, with AIDS) and the infection recurs.
Klebsiella and Proteus sometimes cause urinary tract infections; pneumonia occurs generally in immunocompromised hosts or alcoholics, and ear and sinus infections in immunocompromised hosts.