**Hydrodynamical**methods received increased attention and the investigation of the movements of the ocean by means of physico-mathematical devices developed as a result of the older work of Bjerknes, continued chiefly by Helland-Hansen and Sandstrom.- The empirical data on which the
**hydrodynamical**investigations are based are: (I) observed velocities and directions of oceanic currents and drifts; (2) salinity; (3) density; (4) temperature of the sea water in situ; (5) oceanic soundings. - Although modern mercurial pumps have assumed a multiplicity of forms, their actions can be reduced to two principles, one statical, the other
**hydrodynamical**- at the same time instruments have been devised utilizing both these principles. - The
**hydrodynamical**equations with moving axes, taking into account the mutual gravitation of the liquid, become dp +4 p Ax+ du - vR {-wQ? - In the general motion again of the liquid filling a case, when a = b, 52 3 may be replaced by zero, and the equations,
**hydrodynamical**and dynamical, reduce to d =- 2+ 2 J, = 2 x22111, d = 2 2`2 (+/'15-Om) (1 yy y n`t dt a +c dt a +c dt a +c) dc2, a2-1-c2 d122 a2 c2 dt ="2) +a2= G2y 71' dt = 121 1 - a 2 -c 2SJ, (19) of which three integrals are e +777 r z y 2= L -?2J2, (20) (a2 + c2) 2 2 121+14 =M+ 2c2(a2-c2)1 ' (21) 121+522hN = + x24 2,2 and then (dt / 2 = (a2 + c 2) 2(° v 2 - 12171) 2 4C4 2 2 - (+ c2)2?(E+77) (?

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