Picard and other members of the Academy of Science whom Colbert, in 1668, directed to prepare a new map of France, for on David Vivier's map of the environs of Paris (1674, scale r: 86,400) very crude hachures bounding the rivers have been substituted for the scenographic hills of older maps.
Thus Horsell, who was the first to introduce tints the ground, however, was made until towards the close of the 18th century, when horizontal contours and hachures regulated according to the angle of inclination of all slopes, were adopted.
The declivities of the ground are still indicated in most topographical maps by a system of strokes or hachures, first devised by L.
By this method the slopes are indicated by strokes or hachures crossing the contour lines at right angles, in the direction of flowing water, and varying in thickness according to the degree of declivity they represent (cf.
On the map of Germany (1:Ioo,000) a slope of 50° is shown in solid black while stippled hachures are used for gentle slopes up to 100.
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