At Hawthorne, Esmeralda county, in the S.W., the mean temperature for the year is 54 0; for the winter it is 36°, with extremes of 69° and - 6°; the mean temperature for the summer is 72°, with extremes of 102° and 32°.
The prevailing soils are sand and gravel loams, but other varieties are numerous, ranging from rich alluvial beds of extinct lakes, as in parts of Lyon and Esmeralda counties, to the strongly alkaline plains of the southern deserts.
In 1904, however, both trade and revenue showed signs of improvement, and the sale of the warships " Esmeralda " and " Chambuco " for 1,000,000 furnished a surplus, which was devoted to the improvement of the port of Valparaiso.
In 1902, in Esmeralda county, 24 m.
A sub-bituminous lignite is mined in Esmeralda county (800 tons in 1906; 330 tons in 1907).