The critics of Aquinas - Duns Scotus and the later Nominalists - show some tendency towards rational scepticism.
More importance attaches to Duns Scotus, who brings prominently forward the idea of a progressive development in nature by means of a process of determination.
This serves Duns Scotus as the most universal basis of existence, all angels having material bodies.
One might almost say that Duns Scotus recognizes the principle of a gradual physical evolution, only that he chooses to represent the mechanism by which the process is brought about by means of quaint scholastic fictions.
Thomas' great rival, Duns Scotus, does this to a large extent, at times affirming " two truths."