Several were discovered and put to death at Toulouse in 1022; and the synod of Charroux (dep. of Vienne) in 1028, and that of Toulouse in 1056, condemned the growing sect.
In the 11th and 12th centuries the countship of Penthievre in Brittany (dep. of Cotes-du-Nord) belonged to a branch of the sovereign house of Brittany.
Ozone is also emitted by a violet fluorspar from Quincie, dep. Rhone, France.
In France St Martin remained the chief goal of the pilgrim; while Notre Dame de Sous-Terre in Chartres (with a portrait of the "black Virgin"), Le Puy-en-Velay (dep. Haute Loire), and others, also enjoyed considerable celebrity.
The capital of Upper Egypt was Nekheb, now represented by the ruins of El Kab, with the royal residence across the river at Nekhen (Hieraconpolis); that of Lower Egypt was at Buto (PutO or Dep) in the marshes, with the royal residence in the quarter called Pe.