In the cosmogonies of many ancient peoples there was a plurality of heavens, probably among the earlier Hebrews, the idea being elaborated in rabbinical literature, among the Babylonians and in Zoroastrianism.
In spite of the frequent overgrowth of a luxuriant imagination, the leading ideas of really primitive cosmogonies are extremely simple.
- Phoenician cosmogonies would appear, from the notices which have come down to us, 12 to have been composite.
Greek cosmogonies (the orientalism of which is clear) will be found in Hesiod, Theog.
- Of the Babylonian and Israelitish cosmogonies we have several more or less complete records.