In 1300 the outer ring of walls was completed, the earlier circumvallation being marked by the limit of the Altstadt (old city).
The present line of circumvallation dates from 1626-1632, the period when the independence of Genoa was threatened by the dukes of Savoy.
Portions of the old walls survive, but the greater part of the former circumvallation has been converted into promenades and gardens, outside which a modern town has sprung up. The finest of its squares are the market-place and the so-called Sand.
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