The Samaritan villagers use it in winter as pastureground, and, with the Circassians and Arabs of the east bank, cultivate plots here and there.
The governorsgeneral and the leading officials were nearly all Turks, Albanians or Circassians, and, with rare exceptions, the welfare of the people formed no part of their conception of government.3 Numerous efforts were made to extend the authority of Egypt.
This arose from the fact that most of the higher Egyptian officials were of Turkish nationality and that the army was officered mainly by Turks, Albanians, Circassians, &c., and included in the ranks many Bashi-Bazuks (irregulars) of non-Sudanese origin.
The principal spring is known as Narsan, and its water is called by the Circassians the "drink of heroes."
Before the Russian conquest the native inhabitants of this region were Kabardians, Circassians (Adigheh) and Abkhasians, also a Circassian race.