Gemmae, chlamydospores, resting-cells, cysts, &c.; (3) carpospores, produced by a more or less complex formative process, often in special fructifications, and subserving either or both multiplication and persistence, e.g.
The ultimate product in all cases is a number of carpospores, but before this stage is reached the development is different in different subgroups.
In all these cases, however, the end-cells of the filaments each give rise to a carpospore, and the aggregate of such sporiferous filaments is a cystocarp. Again, in the family of the Gelidiaceae, the single filament arising from the carpogonium grows back into the tissue and preys upon the cells of the axis and larger branches, after which the end-cells give rise to carpospores and a diffused cystocarp is formed.
The carpospores are in all cases bright red naked masses of protoplasm when first discharged.
(A, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, L, M, P, Q, from Oltmanns, by permission of Gustav Fischer; B, N, 0, R, from Engler and Prantl, by permission of Wilhelm Engelman,) mass and from it all the nuclei of the carpospores are thus derived.