In the middle ages it was divided into upper, or black, Quercy, and lower, or white, Quercy, the capital of the former being Cahors and of the latter Montauban.
Its two other chief towns were Figeac and Moissac. Ecclesiastically it was included almost entirely in the diocese of Cahors until 1317, when a bishopric for lower Quercy was established at Montauban.
The estates of the county had the bishop of Cahors for president; other members were the bishop of Montauban and other ecclesiastics, four viscounts, four barons and some other lords and representatives of eighteen towns.
It gave its name to cadurcum, a kind of light linen, and the bankers of Cahors were famous.