JOSEF BEM (1795-1850), Polish soldier, was born at Tarnow in Galicia, and was educated at the military school at Warsaw, where he especially distinguished himself in mathematics.
From the 12th to 22nd of July he was fighting continually, but finally, on the 31st of July, his army was annihilated by overwhelming numbers near Segesvár (Schassburg), Bem only escaping by feigning death.
The tiny, withered, sickly body of Bem was animated by an heroic temper.
The defence of the city was hastily organized under Bem, an ex-officer of Napoleon; but in the absence of help from Hungary it was futile.
King Edward (Duarte) collected a precious library composed of the ancient classics, some translated by his order, as well as medieval poems and histories, and he wrote a moral treatise Leal comselheiro, and hints on horsemanship, or Livro da ensinanra de bem cavalgar toda sella.