King of England (1066–1087) and duke of Normandy (1035–1087). He led the Norman invasion of England (1066) after being promised the English throne by his cousin Edward the Confessor. He defeated Harold at the Battle of Hastings and as king adopted a feudal constitution.
Dutch aristocrat who was made stadholder of Holland, Zeeland, and Utrecht (1559) by Phillip II of Spain. Spurred by the Spanish persecution of Protestants, he led a successful revolt against Spanish rule (1568–1576).