Relates to property harm resulting from cracking exploits. These exploits include such common variations as:
• Flooding: A form of cyberspace vandalism resulting in Denial of Service (DoS) to authorized users of a Website or a computer system
• Virus and worm production and release: A form of cyberspace vandalism causing corruption and possibly erasing of data
• Spoofing: The cyberspace appropriation of an authentic user’s identity by non-authentic users with the intent of causing fraud or attempted fraud, in some cases, and critical infrastructure breakdown, in other cases;
• Phreaking: A form of cyberspace theft and/or fraud involving the use of technology to make free telephone calls
• Infringing Intellectual Property (IP) rights and copyright: A form of cyberspace theft involving the copying of a target’s information or software without appropriate documentation or consent.
Schell, B.H. and Martin, C. 2004. Contemporary World Issues Series: Cybercrime: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2004.