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In 1669 he published his Physica subterranea, and the same year was engaged with the count of Hanau in a scheme for settling a large territory between the Orinoco and the Amazon.
The capital is Ciudad Bolivar, formerly called Angostura, which is situated on the right bank of the Orinoco about 240 m.
Vessels of light draught easily ascend the Orinoco to this point, and a considerable trade is carried on, the exports being cocoa, sugar, cotton, hides, jerked beef and various forest products.
Humboldt found it among the native tribes of the Orinoco valley, where it is called pirijao.
The ita palm, Mauritia, flexuosa (a fanleaf palm) provides an edible fruit, medullary meal, drink, fibre, roofing and timber, but is less used on the Amazon than it is on the lower Orinoco.