In the first place, with a given size of particles, the direction of complete polarization indicated by (23) is a function of the colour of the light, the value of 0 being 3 or 4 times as large for the violet as for the red end of the spectrum.
The tonnage of goods carried amounts to about 16,000,000 tons, or 4 tons per inhabitant, which must be considered fairly large, especially as no great proportion of the tonnage consists of minerals on which there is usually a low freightage.
On rich loams and the alluvial soils of river-valleys, when well drained, the tree attains a large size, often rivalling the giant oaks of Europe; trunks of 3 or 4 ft.
Some of the sandbanks are dry; and no part of the shoal has a greater depth than 3 or 4 ft.
That of the latter is multiple, several rack-plates being placed parallel to each other, and the teeth break joint at 1, a or 4 of their pitch, according to the number of rack-plates.