(NanoRAM) A non-volatile, random access memory technology from Nantero, Inc., Woburn, MA (www.nantero.com) that is being developed to initially replace flash memory and ultimately DRAM and SRAM memories. NRAM uses carbon nanotubes for the bit cells, and the 0 or 1 is determined by the tube's physical state: up with high resistance, or down and grounded. NRAM is expected to be faster and denser than DRAM and also very scalable; able to handle 5 nm bit cells whenever CMOS fabrication advances to that level. It is also very stable in its 0 or 1 state. Using standard CMOS fabrication facilities, Nantero licensed NRAM to companies for commercial production. See future memory chips. Spin Coat the Tubes onto the Wafer Making NRAM cells is quite fascinating. A solution of purified carbon nanotubes is placed onto a wafer with predefined round electrodes and spun at centrifugal force to spread the fluid. The tubes wind up in random polarizations, spread evenly across the wafer and over the electrodes. Subsequent steps remove the extraneous tubes and add the interconnects. Each electrode with its carbon tubes becomes a memory cell (see below).