A radio transmission system that can support effective communications without optical LOS. The higher the frequency of the signal, the more important is LOS. Cellular telephones and pagers, for example, operate in MHz (e.g., 800 and 900 MHz ranges) and the lower end of the GHz ranges (e.g., 1.8 and 1.9 GHz), and operate quite effectively in NLOS mode. Higher frequency signals, such as microwaves, generally require LOS, yet WiMAX, for example, is a wireless local loop technology operating in the 2-11 GHz range in both LOS and non-LOS (NLOS) modes. See also LOS and near-LOS.