A country of western Africa on the Gulf of Guinea. A variety of states were established in the region prior to the arrival of Europeans, including the Bornu, Benin, and Songhai empires. Exploited by Portuguese, British, French, and Dutch traders in the 1600s and 1700s, Nigeria was eventually claimed by the British, who consolidated the area into one colony in 1914. The country attained its independence in 1960. In 1991, the seat of government was moved from Lagos to the new capital, Abuja.