Physically the country is divided into two regions, the one a series of mountain ranges occupying the northern and eastern portions of the kingdom, and the other a plain which stretches southwards from Mukden, the capital, to the Gulf of Liao-tung.
- Mukden, or as it is called by the Chinese Sheng-king, the capital city of Manchuria, is situated in the province of Sheng-king, occupies a fine position on the river Hun-ho, an affluent of the Liao, and is a city of considerable pretensions.
The indigo plant is grown in large quantities in the plain country to the north of Mukden, and is transported thence to the coast in carts, each of which carries rather more than a ton weight of the dye.
Branches were promoted (a) from Mukden to Antung on the Yalu, to connect with the Korean system, and (b) from Kwang-cheng-tsze to Kirin.
The first runs from Peking to Kirin via Mukden, where it sends off a branch to Korea.