While the French directory saw in that province little more than a district which might be plundered and bargained for, Bonaparte, though by no means remiss in the exaction of gold and of artistic treasures, was laying the foundation of a friendly republic. During his sojourn at the castle of Montebello or Mombello, near I\Iilan, he commissioned several of the leading men of northern Italy to draw up a project of constitution and list of reforms for that province.
The actions of Montebello (May 20), Palestro (May 3f) and Melegnano (June 8) and the battles of Magenta (June ~) and Solferino (June 24) all went against the Austrians.
An unworthy nephew, Carlo Caraffa, was made cardinal, and other relatives were invested with the duchies of Paliano and Montebello.
Much of this work of reorganization was carried on at the castle of Montebello, or Mombello, near Milan, where he lived in almost viceregal pomp (May - July, 1 797).
He died at Montebello, in the province of Quebec, on the 24th of September 1871.